Liver function tests and liver biopsy were performed on 29 asymptomatic HIV-infected patients and liver biopsies were obtained in 14. Although an elevated serum alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase were frequently noted, the absence of ascites, jaundice or other symptoms suggested that the liver function tests were not related to clinically important liver disease. Chronic hepatitis was observed in the majority of cases. In 14 of the 14 biopsies done, chronic active hepatitis with or without cirrhosis was seen. In five cases, cirrhosis was the only finding. These findings are similar to those reported in other parts of the world.Q:
Meaning of these basic concepts
We are talking about the role of gas in our lives and words like atoms, molecules, but what are the basic concepts behind those words?
An atom is the smallest unit of matter that has a stable, definite number of protons in its nucleus (currently, there are more neutrons than protons) and that has a definite mass number (the number of protons in the nucleus multiplied by the atomic mass of a proton). This is a chemical atom, in that all the protons have the same electric charge. Atoms of the same element all have the same number of protons in their nucleus.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has lost or gained electrons and has a net electric charge.
A molecule is a collection of atoms held together by their mutual forces of attraction, held together by the interactions between the electrons in the atoms.
Gas is a general term used to describe a collection of atoms and molecules. A gas is usually in a loose state (eg. air is a gas, as is water, both of which are essentially invisible). A gas may be invisible, because it has low density.
So an atom is an invisible, stable, definable collection of protons and neutrons that attracts other atoms.
An ion is an invisible, unstable, definable collection of protons and electrons that attracts other ions.
A molecule is an invisible, small collection of ions that attracts ions of other molecules.
And gas is a collection of molecules that attract other atoms.
Atoms can't be divided, so the second principle of thermodynamics doesn't hold for atoms.
Atoms can be moved from one place to another, so they don't have a fixed position 0b46394aab